Non luminous emissions


First observed by both the ALEXIS and STRONG satellites in the 1990s, TIPPS or 'Trans-Ionospheric Pulse Pairs' are very intense VHF pulses originating from thunderstorm. They are 10,000 times stronger than normal lightnings and last 5Ás. The second impulse is due to the reflexion on Earth of the first impulse and it usually separated by 10 to 110Ás.

First detected by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Gamma ray bursts (1 ms) occur over thunderstorm regions. Their source is believed to lie at altitudes greater than 30 km.

Sprites are produced by an avalanche of relativistic electrons started a cosmic radiation. This electron beam could interact with the air molecules and produce a X ray radiation and secondary gamma radiation. The sprites have an an energy of approximately 20ev. But the Gamma ray bursts have an energy of one million ev.

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